9, Issue 1, September 2019
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M,T, looked at the the gender gap narrowing in Iran from sociological
viewpoints. The author stressed that education as a key factor
affects all aspects of life by the girls/women. Higher education
was widespread and thereby the standards of the females started
changing. Higher education by the women usually provide better
and higher voice to them. The mentality of gender inequality
could solely be reached through higher education by the girls
and for the girls. As compared with girls/women in other developing
and developed countries, female tertiary educated people is
qualitatively and quantitatively in a satisfactory situation
in Iran. The new scenario highly affects their living standards,
social position, their demographics and their productivity.
What the country needs, is the potential to further invest
in them. As their expectations have changed, they materially
need more income to enable them to consume. Education has
transformed them to be further modernity-oriented. Higher
education has highly changed the fertility behavior of the
women, and that would endow the girls/women with longer life
expectancy in the years to come. Higher education by the girls/women
has given them more chances of migration and mobility.
Bendak L investigated the effectiveness of "Talk It Out"
conflict resolution program on six graders' beliefs about
aggression and alternatives in a local school in Beirut. The
quantitative approach was adopted where the total number of
learners in the study was 51, from the same school, whose
ages ranged from 10.6 to 11.4 years. The sample was divided
into two groups, where the control group had 25 learners from
a grade 6 class, and the experimental group had 26 learners
from another section. The measuring instrument that was used
in this study is the "Beliefs about Aggression and Alternatives"
survey. A pretest was done to both groups prior to the intervention
period. Then, the "Talk It Out" program was employed
for the experimental group over a period of five weeks. After
that, the posttest was done and the results were analyzed
using independent sample T-tests and paired sample T-tests.
The author stressed that the results of this study showed
statistical differences to the benefit of the experimental
group over the control group.
Zoromba, M et al looked at the Psychometric Properties of
the Arabic Version of Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS).
The authors stressed that Tic is a sudden, repetitive, non-rhythmic
motor move or vocalization including separated group of muscles.
Aim: Assess the validity and reliability of Arabic version
of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Methods: Methodological
design was utilized to investigate Content Validity Index
(CVI) reported by nine experts. Intra-class correlation coefficient
ICC (Interrater and Intrarater Agreement) and Cronbach's alpha
reliability coefficients were addressed to investigate reliability.
Results: CVI of clarity and relevance for each item ranged
from 0.67 to 1. Predominance score of clarity and relevance
= 0.89 for most of items. Total CVI= 0.88. Cronbach's alpha
reliability coefficients for the Total Motor Tic Score =0.84,
Total Vocal Tic Score =0.91, and Total Tic Score =0.80. ICC
(Inter-rater agreement) of YGTSS regarding; motor tics, vocal
tics, impairment and total severity score (r= 0.72, 0.98,
0.88, and 0.97 respectively). ICC (Intra-rater agreement)
of YGTSS regarding; motor tics, vocal tics, impairment and
total severity score were = 0.96, 0.97, 1, and 0.96; respectively.
Conclusion: Current Arabic Version is highly valid and reliable.
Implications for Practice: Using current Arabic version of
YGTSS to assess severity of tics